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Volume 26 • Number 1

January 2012




by Cindy Holder

Chronic poverty comes in a variety of forms. It is multi-dimensional in its causes and multi-dimensional in its impacts (Chronic Poverty Research Centre 2009, pp. 5–6). Although poverty "has an irreducible economic connotation," this connotation "does not necessarily imply the primacy of economic factors" (OHCHR 2004, p. 8). For example, violent conflict, access to land, and social relations of power are among the most important factors in food security (Jenkins and Scanlan 2001; Tschirley and Weber 1994; Kennedy and Peters 1992). Integration into global economic markets is as likely to be a source of immiseration and impoverishment as it is a solution (Martinez-Salazar 1999; Ghai 2001; Shiva 2003). Access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation are significantly impacted by displacement and violent conflict and its aftermath; displacement and violent conflict often have an ethnic dimension (Tilly 2003, p. 224; Hannum 1996).

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ISSN: 2152-0542